共找到 1,453,166 条论著文献

61、「昭和」を點検する 2008

62、論點・爭點現代労働法 平成 20[2008]

63、天津区县旧志点校 2008

64、The typology of motion expressions revisited

摘要:This paper provides a new perspective on the options available to languages for encoding directed motion events. Talmy (2000) introduces an influential two-way typology, proposing that languages adopt either verb-or satellite-framed encoding of motion events. This typology is augmented by Slobin (2004b) and Zlatev & Yangklang (2004) with a third class of equipollently-framed languages. We propose that the observed options can instead be attributed to: (i) the motion-independent morphological, lexical, and syntactic resources languages make available for encoding manner and path of motion, (ii) the role of the verb as the single clause-obligatory lexical category that can encode either manner or path, and (iii) extra-grammatical factors that yield preferences for certain options. Our approach accommodates the growing recognition that most languages straddle more than one of the previously proposed typological categories: a language may show both verb-and satelliteframed patterns, or if it allows equipollent-framing, even all three patterns. We further show that even purported verb-framed languages may not only allow but actually prefer satellite-framed patterns when appropriate contextual support is available, a situation unexpected if a two-or three-way typology is assumed. Finally, we explain the appeal of previously proposed two-and three-way typologies: they capture the encoding options predicted to be preferred once certain external factors are recognized, including complexity of expression and biases in lexical inventories.
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65、The semantic category of the subject NP in Mandarin specificational copular sentence

66、Change of state verbs and result state adjectives in Mandarin Chinese

摘要:This paper investigates the derivational relationship between adjectives and verbs in Mandarin Chinese describing related state, change of state (COS) and caused COS meanings. Such paradigms have been observed in various languages to fall into two categories: One in which a word naming a property concept state constitutes the derivational base for the related COS verbs, and another in which a COS verb forms the basis from which the stative word - a 'result state' predicate - is derived. I show that in Mandarin, the distinction between morphological paradigms based on property-concept words versus eventive verbs is also found, but the actual derivational relations between verbs and adjectives are influenced by language-particular morphological properties of Mandarin. Specifically, I argue that a gradable property concept adjective systematically alternates to a related COS verb. This alternation, which can be tapped by degree modification and negation contexts, distinguishes adjectives from stative verbs, which do not have consistent COS counterparts, and from underived intransitive COS verbs, which do not have systematic stative counterparts. That is, I show that COS verbs do not lend themselves to the systematic derivation of result state adjectives. Rather, I argue that result state adjectives in Mandarin arise from conceptual-pragmatic factors: The nominal modified by such a result state adjective should be understood as describing a culturally or contextually salient class of entities.
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67、External Causation and Agentivity in Mandarin Chinese

摘要:This work addresses a contrast in the encoding pattern of two kinds of events of caused change in Mandarin Chinese. Caused change of state events are typically expressed with a resultative verb compound, while caused change of location and caused motion events may be expressed with a monomorphemic verb. I argue that this asymmetry arises from two factors. One is a requirement in Mandarin that monomorphemic verbs of causation be agentive, which reflects a prototypical association between causers and volitional agents. The second is an ontological distinction between change of state and change of location. Changes of state may arise spontaneously without an external cause for any kind of individual. In contrast, change of location for one kind of entity - inanimates - requires the mediation of an external agent.
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68、Representing possessive predication : semantic dimensions and pragmatic base 2004

摘要:1 online resource (xviii, 267 pages)
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69、改正史から読み解く會社法の論點 Analysis and appraisal, Japanese Corporation Law 2008

70、太平洋戦爭の新視點 :戦爭指導・軍政・捕虜 : 平成19年度戦爭史研究國際フォーラム報告書 2008

71、地域福祉の原點を探る :夕張市に見る住民・市民自治の本質 2008

72、中國ビジネス・香港からの視點 :裏側を読みとく眼 2008

73、崂山续志 :点校本 2008

74、海軍史と醫學史との交點 :戦沒海軍軍醫の醫學研鑽 2008

75、場面描寫と視點 :日韓両言語の談話構成とその習得 2008

76、近代日本の分岐點 :日露戦爭から満州事変前夜まで 2008

77、親鸞思想の原點 :目覚めの原理としての回向 2008

78、外婆点亮煤油灯 2008

79、什么是世界文学 2014

80、日中文化の交差點 Intersection of Japanese and Chinese culture 2008

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