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81、From Tribal Tibet: The Significance of the Legal Form

摘要:This chapter analyzes a legal code found among nomadic pastoralists in eastern Tibet. This code consists of directions and prescriptions relating to different areas of tribal life and specifies compensation payments to be made after a death or injury. Its provisions diverge significantly, however, from the practices of mediation that actually take place among these tribes. It is argued that the expressive nature of its content is more significant than its instrumental value. Its provisions represent a type of civilization to which the Tibetan tribes and their leaders aspired. The legal form is, for them, a means of linking social norms and practices to a supervening moral order and, as such, the code can be regarded as significant, quite apart from any impact it has upon legal practices.
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82、Rules, Proverbs, and Persuasion: Legalism and Rhetoric in Tibet

摘要:History and anthropology offer many examples of legal codes containing rules that seem never to have been applied, or that could not easily have been applied as a means of regulating conduct. Why the use of generalizing rules and abstract categories in such cases? The legalism of a tribal code from eastern Tibet is here thrown into relief by the language of oral argument employed in associated processes of mediation. The striking contrast between the rules and categories of the code and the metaphors and allusive references of the mediation process suggests that the apparent tension between the two may both reflect and allow for certain contradictions within the lives and social relationships of Tibetan tribespeople: as their leaders seek to establish status and to secure loyalty among their tribesmen, while resisting the encroachment of surrounding polities; and as tribesmen simultaneously express defiance and loyalty towards their families and tribes.
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83、Community, Justice, and Legalism : Elusive Concepts in Tibet

摘要:A contrast is drawn between two parts of the Tibetan region to question common associations between justice and community. Coordination of agricultural activities and social relations in village Ladakh is a matter of moral, rather than legal, obligation; apparently rejecting practices of representative democracy, the villagers also resist the opportunity to spell out village norms in law-like terms. Communal ideas are, rather, based on a sense of harmony and consensus and even a concept of justice is elusive. Tribal relations in Amdo, by contrast, are based on ideas of reciprocity and revenge, underpinned by expression of anger, individualism, and defiance; meanwhile, practices of justice have been enshrined in written form. This contrast, within a region that shares language, history, and religion, points to an association between justice and practices of reciprocity within an unbounded moral domain.
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84、Justice, Community, and Law

摘要:The introduction reviews recent work in anthropology, history, and law, examining current use of the terms 『community』 and 『justice』. Justice is the subject of an extensive literature in legal and political theory but has rarely been addressed by anthropologists. Historical and anthropological examples are used to contrast the ways in which justice is invoked as a general social or political ideal, its connection with legal processes, and its appeal as a discursive resource in political and personal battles. Although 『community』 is frequently employed by historians, lawyers, and political philosophers, it often remains analytically ill-defined and morally over-determined, hiding more than it might reveal. Drawing on the comparative material in this volume, the Introduction points to features of the 『communities』 presented that might lead to more considered cross-cultural analysis. Law, legal concepts, and attention to local classifications are shown to be crucial.
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85、Modern Ladakh : anthropological perspectives on continuity and change 2008

86、The campaign against India's Narmada Dam project : an ethnography of an international protest movement 1998

87、Feuding, mediation and negotiation of authority among the nomads of Eastern Tibet 2005

摘要:從書:Max Planck Institute for Social Anthropology Working Papers., Max-Planck-Institut für Ethnologische Forschung ;, no. 72 1 Online-Ressource (30 Seiten = 0,56 MB) Karte
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88、The fragile web of order conflict avoidance and dispute resolution in Ladakh 2002

89、Conflict and social order in Tibet and inner Asia 2008

90、The anthropology of law 2014

摘要:從書:Clarendon law series. 1 online resource. Questions about the nature of law, its relationship with custom and the distinctive form of legal rules, categories, and claims are placed at the centre of this introduction to the study of law and anthropology. It brings empirical scholarship within the scope of legal philosophy, while suggesting new avenues of inquiry for the anthropologist.
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91、Past and Present Resource Disputes in the South China Sea: The Case of Reed Bank

摘要:in 2012, tensions flared between china and the philippines over plans to drill for oil in the reed bank, a disputed shoal in the south china sea, rekindling fears about the possibility of military conflict over the area’s energy resources. this article shows that international controversy centering on the reed bank’s hydrocarbon reserves initially emerged during the oil crisis of the 1970s, when the pursuit of energy resources transformed the islets into a hotly contested area. as in recent years, oil exploration by multinational corporations in conjunction with the philippines catalyzed international disputes. vigorous protests from china and other nations that lay claim to territories in the south china sea prompted the philippines to assert its own jurisdictional claims. the territorial dispute pushed claimants to the brink of military confrontation in the 1970s, yet armed conflict failed to materialize. by examining the initial round of tensions surrounding oil exploration at reed bank, this article situates the current international competition for the south china sea’s energy resources in historical perspective. analyzing past disputes and their ultimate resolution offers insights into the dynamics of present tensions, while making it possible to critically engage with arguments predicting future 「resource wars」 in the south china sea.
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92、The Journal of Asian Studie

93、Book Review: Fishing Wars and Environmental Change in Late Imperial and Modern China

94、Book Review: Fishing Wars and Environmental Change in Late Imperial and Modern China

95、Book Review: Fishing Wars and Environmental Change in Late Imperial and Modern China

96、Book Review: Fishing Wars and Environmental Change in Late Imperial and Modern China. Harvard East Asian Monograph 325

97、Book Review: Fishing Wars and Environmental Change in Late Imperial and Modern China

98、Book Review: Fishing Wars and Environmental Change in Late Imperial and Modern China

99、Past and Present Resource Disputes in the South China Sea: The Case of Reed Bank

100、Fishing and Whaling

摘要:This chapter contains sections titled:Prehistoric and Ancient FisheriesMedieval and Early Modern FisheriesModern FisheriesReference
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