摘要：Bearded males wearing caps with back flaps and sitting feet-apart in three-quarter poses found in paintings of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries on north Chinese tomb walls heretofore have been believed to be Mongols. A painting of this type found in a tomb dated to 1269 in Donger village of Shaanxi in 1998 raises the possibility that a Mongol pose and attire does not necessarily indicate Mongol ethnicity. When read correctly, the inscription in the Dongercun tomb informs us that the interred male is Chinese. Inscriptions in thirteenth- and fourteenth-century tombs in Hansenzhai, Shaanxi, and Dongguan village, Hebei, found in the early twenty-first century, also confirm that their occupants are Chinese. Uninscribed tombs excavated in the vicinity of Jinan, Shandong province, share imagery with the Shaanxi and Hebei tombs. Paintings and their details in all these tombs trace to the Northern Song (960-1127) or Yuan (1279-1368) periods, sometimes with specific objects that could have been owned or used by the tomb occupants. Yet other details in the paintings represent features or objects exclusive to Mongols. Ethnicity, in fact, can only be known through the written word, for in the Mongolian period in China, some Chinese represented themselves as Mongols for the afterlife.